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Working Paper Abstract

157. "Gender Quotas, Female Politicians and Public Expenditures:
          Quasi-Experimental Evidence"
          by Pamela Campa

This paper uses a Regression Discontinuity Design combined with a Before-After
estimation to explore the effect of legislated candidate gender quotas on the
election  of female politicians and on public finance decisions in Spanish municipalities.
Gender quotas have increased the percentage of female candidates by 7-10 points
and also, but to a lower extent, the percentage of female Councilors (4-6 points)
in Spain. I show that the difference between the increase in female Councilors and
the increase in female candidates is due to the strategic positioning of candidates
within lists. There is no evidence of an effect of gender quotas on the probability
of indirect election of female Mayors. The estimates of the effect of gender quotas
on the size and composition of local government expenditures are not statistically
different from zero, despite there being evidence from survey data of gender
differences in preferences over policy. I interpret this lack of effect alternatively
as being a Median Voter Theorem result or the consequence of the modest
impact of gender quotas on the percentage of female Councilors and of the
failure to promote women to executive positions and to contraist party leaders
in their ability to influence party members' decisions over policy.

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